That USB microscope is pretty impressive for $30. I might get one.
Anyway, from the pic I think your stylus is still there, I see the point there and since you still get some music but distorted so it is still there. Look like you have a build up of gunge around the stylus there and this cause the stylus not to sit well into the groove.
I don't use any of those gel dome or foam thingy to clean my stylus. To me nothing beat a good wet cleaning with stylus brush. I've been using the Record Research #9 stylus cleaner for years. I don't remember when I bought this bottle but it had been a few years now and I still have about a quarter left. https://www.musicdirect.com/recommended-analog-accessories/mobile-fidelity-lp-9-stylus-cleaner
Now is Mo-Fi branded, but I think it is the same. I clean my stylus every time after I finish my listing session average about 3-4hrs. I don't think it is really necessary to clean it every before you play each record as long as you keep your records clean in the first place. No need to totally wet the brush, just a little bit on the stylus brush goes a long way. But be careful when using stylus brush, only drag it back to front motion and make sure you don't push the brush up to hard, I leave my tonearm unlock and rest on the cueing lever up when I clean my stylus.